Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproduction technique included within in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. It has enabled pregnancy to be achieved successfully in couples diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. The man must provide a semen sample or must undergo a testicular biopsy – if necessary – in order to extract and select the best spermatozoa which will be used to fertilise the oocytes.
- Men with a low sperm count, sperm motility problems or poor sperm morphology.
- Men who have had a vasectomy.
- Infectious diseases or infertility caused by immune factors.
- Difficulty ejaculating normally, as in the case of retrograde ejaculation (neurological problems, diabetes, etc.).
- Cases of cryopreserved samples from men who have had a vasectomy or have had chemotherapy or radiotherapy. These samples are very valuable as there is a limited quantity and ICSI allows their use to be optimised.
- Other factors: repeated failure following several cycles of IVF, a low number of oocytes obtained from follicular puncture, or when it is necessary to identify healthy embryos in the case of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).